Metabolic consequences of Insulin Resistance

Metabolic consequences of Insulin Resistance

The metabolic consequences of insulin resistance were indicated by the authors Freeman and Pennings in their study, which included:

• Hyperglycemia

• Hypertension,

• Dyslipidemia,

• Visceral obesity,

• Hyperuricemia,

• Increased indicators of inflammation,

• Endothelial dysfunction,

• Prothrombotic state,

• Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD),

• Type 2 diabetes.


Insulin resistance is primarily an acquired condition associated with excess body fat, although genetic causes have also been identified.


The authors emphasize that the main goal of treatment of insulin resistance should be lifestyle modification based on a selected diet with reduced calories and reduced carbohydrate content, which stimulate excessive demand for insulin. Physical activity helps to increase energy expenditure and improve muscle insulin sensitivity.


The article also indicated that most of the consequences of insulin resistance are associated with the development of vascular complications. This disease is manifested by retinopathy, nephropathy and peripheral neuropathy. Dementia, stroke, mood disorders and gait instability may occur in the central nervous system. Cardiac microcirculation disease can present with angina pectoris, coronary artery spasm, and cardiomyopathy. Renal microcirculation disease is a significant cause of chronic renal failure and dialysis. Ophthalmic small vessel disease is the leading cause of visual acuity loss.

Source: Freeman AM, Pennings N. Insulin Resistance. [Updated 2022 Jul 4]. In: StatPearls [Internet]. Treasure Island (FL): StatPearls Publishing; 2022 Jan-. Available from: